*** For any stewardship/education sessions – this post will serve as a resource for links to the evidence quoted- I’ll try and keep it up-to-date as I can***
“Hi, I’d really like an overview on where we are with antibiotic resistance!” – recommend the CDC overview- colorful, diagramatic, comprehensive
“Hi, tell me about Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and why everyone thinks this is seriously bad stuff” – great review in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings – Vasoo et al 2015
****Selection and transmission of resistance*****
Plasmid-mediated transmission a likely mechanism – Wang 2015
A summary of the “evidence for” – the link between animal antibiotic use and human ESBL infection – report written by the Soil Association here.
As I feel I should offer a balance of views I’ll also give you an “evidence against” report by the National Office of Animal Health here, (who gave evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee). I personally don’t agree with many of the statements (resistance increasing is old, new antibiotics coming, selective picking of evidence, lack of evidence using incomplete methods =/= lack of occurrence), but will leave you to consider your own views.
The CDC position is that there is a significant link.
****Antibiotic-gut-resistance axis *****
Gut-carriage of resistance genes reflect country-specific antibiotic use in human and animals Forslund 2013
***Do we really know what we’re doing ? Antibiotics may increase risk of infection by depleting the host ‘protective’ microbiome*****
Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteruria can increase risk of subsequent UTI – Cai 2012
Antibiotic use increases risk of Crohn’s disease – Shaw 2011 and discussed here
Major position papers/overviews, more molecular biology, changing prescribing – continued….
UK Chief Medical Officer Report 2011 Vol 2: Antimicrobial Resistance
Review on Antimicrobial Resistance 2014 – Report commissioned by UK Government
World Health Organisation – Resistance factsheet
The CDC overview – very nice, shiny infographics. http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/20705
Use of antibiotics in agriculture –Soil Association report
Others want to do their bit – Antibiotic Resistance Coalition (including farming, consumer, developing world groups) Declaration on Antibiotics 2014
Some good writing:
Antibiotic Resistance is a Social Problem – Smith 2015
Viewpoint: “We lived with arrogant optimism that we had conquered infections[…] How wrong we were! Bacteria have finally reclaimed their premier status and superiority and won the war against humans. They are literally mocking our intellect, knowledge and antibiotic weaponry”- Abdul Ghafur, Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Mycology, Apollo Hospital, Chennai.Viewpoint Article here.
EARSS – European Resistance Data, interactive maps
An extensive paper covering environmental pollution: Martinez- Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic-resistance determinants
Case report of obesity associated with faecal transplantation Alang 2015 (think- take with a pinch of salt… but interesting given well-reported correlations between microbiota and obesity – see Turnbaugh 2009)
Mice given faecal transplants take on the behaviour of their donor – Collins 2013
Refractory C diff in pt with VRE resolved with faecal transplant – Jang 2015
Faecal transplants -first reported use in 4th Century in China for gastrointestinal infection -Zhang 2012
UK Department of Health guidance on changing prescribing
National MRSA rates run along with fair play of national football teams: a cross-national data analysis of the European Football Championship, 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865393 (great use of pseudostats)